Thursday, January 8, 2009

Intravenous Fluids

Fluids & electrolytes are a dynamic process that is crucial for life. Disorders of fluids and electrolytes occurs in every setting, with every disorder and with a variety of changes that affect well people and those who are ill. Example...people engaging in strenious activity may result to an increase fluid and sodium loss.

If you are a nursing student, you need to understand the physiology of fluids & electrolyte balance as well as acid-base balances in order to anticipate, identify & respond to possible imbalance of each. For student nurses who will be exposed to clinical areas with patients attached to IV fluids, it is very important to know why such an IVF is indicated for a particular patient.

IVF or intravenous fluid therapy is a common practice today. It is an efficient and effective method of supplying fluids directly into the ECF compartment, specifically the venous
system.

Purposes of IV Fluids

1. to supply fluids when clients are unable to take in an adequate volume of fluids by mouth.

Example: patients who are vomiting, patients with altered level of consciousness, patients with disabilities or patients under certain conditions cannot take in fluids orally.

2. to provide salts needed to maintain electrolyte balance.

You have to understand that electrolytes in the body were placed in such a way that it should maintain cellular equilibrium to achieve normal body functioning. If there will be an imbalance to these electrolytes, it will result to a serious disorder or malfunctioning....that's why IVF may come in a form of prevention --- to prevent electrolyte imbalance to occur.

3. to provide glucose (dextrose), the main fuel for metablism.

Glucose is NOT an electrolyte. It is a form of sugar. When carbohydrate is metabolized, it turns into glucose which the cell absorbs for cellular energy production and consumption.

4. to provide water-solube vitamins and medications.

Patients who cannot take in medications or even vitamins orally, may still be given through intravenous route. Either incorporated in an intravenous fluid or as an IV bolus.

5. to promote a life line for rapidly needed medications.

In cases patients develop convulsions or life-threatening conditions, the intavenous line is a helpful medium to give medications for rapid effects.

Common Type of Intravenous Solutions

IV solutions may come in different forms:

1. Depending on its TONICITY (the ability of the solute to cause water movement from one compartment to another)

  • Isotonic Solutions

  • Hypotonic Solutions

  • Hypertonc solutions

2. May also come in a form of:

  • Nutrient solutions

  • Electrolyte solutions

  • Alkalyzing solution

  • Acidifying solutins

Isotonic Solutions

-solutions that have a concentration of dissolved particles or tonicity equal to that of ICF. Osmotic pressure is equal both in ICF & ECF.
- there is no water displacement, thus, no effect on the cell.

Examples of IVfluids:

  1. NSS (NOrmal Saline Solution/ 0.9% NaCl) - contains only electrolytes Na&Cl.

  2. D5W (5% dextrose in water) - contains no electrolytes

  3. Ringer's solution - &

  4. Lactated Ringer's Solution - contains Na, K, Ca, Cl & Lactate

Purpose:

  • used to maintain fluid intake and reestablish water volume because these fluids stays in the vascular compartment, therefore, it expands the vascular volume. Example...patients who are vomiting, patients with acute diarrhea and fever.

  • take note: D5W is an isotonic fluid on initial administration, but when glucose is metabolized, it produces free water.This water may expand both the ICF & ECF fluid volume, thus, acts as a hypotonic solution.

  • D5W when given in large amounts may cause hyperglycemia.

Hypotonic Solutions

Hypotonic solutions have lesser tonicity than that of the ICF because it has lesser solute concentration. ICF becomes more concentrated, it pulls water from the ECF, thus, makes the cell swell.
Examples of Hypotonic Fluids:

  1. 0.45% NaCl (half strength normal saline)

  2. 0.33% NaCl ( one third strength normal saline)

  3. 2.5% Dextrose in water

Purpose:

  • used to provide free water and treat cellular dehydration.

  • Note: Free water is desirable to aid the kidneys in elimination of solute via urine output.

Hypertonic Solutions

Hypertonic solutions have tonicity or solute concentration in ECF greater than that of the ICF. Therefore, it pulls fluids out of the ICF...... and the cell shrinks.

Examples of Hypertonic Fluids:

  1. D5NSS (5% Dextrose in normal saline solution)

  2. D5 in 0.45% NaCl ( 5% Dextrose in half strength normal saline)

  3. D5LR (5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer's Solution)

  4. D10W ( 10% Dextrose in water)

  5. D50W50 (50% Dextrose in 50 ml of water)

Purpose:

  • Hypertonic solution draws fluids from the ICF causing cells to shrink and ECF to expand.
  • Given to patients with hyponatremias (Na deficits) with edema
  • Aside from being isotonic, hypotonic & hypertonic. IVF may also come in a form of nutrient solution, electrolyte solution, alkalyzing solution & acidifying solution....

    Nutrient Solution

    Nutrient solutions contain some form of carbohydrates and water. Water is supplied for fluid requirements and CHO for calories and energy requirement. Example... 1 liter of 5% Dextrose provides 170 of calories.

    Common Nutrient Solutions are:

    1. D5W (5% Dextrose in water)
    2. 3.3% Glucose in 0.3% NaCl (Glucose in saline)
    3. 5% Dextrose in 0.45% NaCl (Dextrose in half strength saline)

    Purpose:

    • Nutrient solutions are useful in preventing dehydration. However, it is a wrong notion to say that dextrose increases weight, or promotes normal growth in children or promotes wound healing or healing disorders. The calories it provide are not for such purposes but mainly for prevention of dehydration and ketosis.

    Electrolyte Solutions

    Electrolyte solutions are either NaCl (saline solutions) or multiple electrolyte solutions containing varying amounts of cations and anions.

    Commonly Used Solutions are:

    1. Normal Saline Solution (0.9% NaCl Solution) - contains electrolytes Na & Cl only
    2. Ringer's Solution - contains Na, Cl, K, Ca
    3. Lactated Ringer's Solution - contains Na, Cl, K, Ca & Lactate( a salt of lactic acid that is metabolized in the liver to form bicarbonate)

    NOte: Normal saline solutions are frequently used as initial hydrating solutions. Multiple electrolyte solutions are useful to prevent dehydration or to restore or correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances.

    Alkalyzing Solution

    Alkalyzing solutions are administered to counteract or prevent Metabolic Acidosis. Example....Lactated Ringer's Solution

    Acidifying Solution

    Acidifying slutions are administerd to counteract or prevent Metabolic Alkalosis. Example... 0.9% NaCl &/or D5NSS.


    43 comments:

    1. i like this, is very useful to me. thanks

      ReplyDelete
    2. thank you for this information, this helps a lot.

      ReplyDelete
    3. Thanks for the simple and to the point clarification.

      ReplyDelete
    4. Thanks for this info, very useful. . .

      ReplyDelete
    5. worth noting that D5W (5% dextrose in water) is Hypotonic in the body and isotonic on the shelf

      ReplyDelete
    6. Enter your comment...Thanks for the information.

      ReplyDelete
    7. Wonderful blog that you have shared. Please update more details about it. thanks for sharing.
      Male Infertility Specialist in Chennai

      ReplyDelete
    8. As indicated by a few reports, it is the lawful weight which constrained the administrators to close down their tasks (123movies.in.net) . Be that as it may, no official remark has been gotten from the group yet. 123Movies Movie

      ReplyDelete
    9. Watch movies online free on Fmovies. Watch series online. Over 9000 free streaming movies, documentaries & TV series free on site Fmovies

      ReplyDelete
    10. I think this is a real great article post.Really looking forward to read more. Visit at
      Crazy Video Hub

      ReplyDelete
    11. Nutra Trials defines personal characteristics of different health products including skincare, weight loss, muscle and male enhancement. The study presented here is briefly described for reader convenience and to deliver them assurance with health standards. The best possible answers are given here regarding the selection of an ideal supplement or cream or serum that possibly remains to be safe for health and do not cause any side effects.

      ReplyDelete
    12. It is a great job, I like your posts and wish you all the best. and I hope you continue this job well.
      NutraT line

      ReplyDelete
    13. This is a great post ! it was very informative. I look forward in reading more of your work. Also, I made sure to bookmark your website so I can come back later. I enjoyed every moment of reading it..
      kim kardashian sex tape
      porn sex video hd
      mia khalifa sex video
      sunny leone sexy movie

      ReplyDelete
    14. Hello, I am thomus jons thank you for this informative post. That is a great job. Wish you more success.Thank you so much and for you all the best. Takes Down
      123movies

      ReplyDelete
    15. Times For Health is Online Health & Wellness Program! This post is really really nice and so informative. Thanks for the nice post share with us! https://www.timesforhealth.com/

      ReplyDelete
    16. healrun is a health news blog we provide the latest news about health, Drugs and latest Diseases and conditions. We update our users with health tips and health products reviews. If you want to know any information about health or health product (Side Effects & Benefits) Feel Free To ask HealRun Support Team.

      ReplyDelete
    17. healrun is a health news blog we provide the latest news about health, Drugs and latest Diseases and conditions. We update our users with health tips and health products reviews. If you want to know any information about health or health product (Side Effects & Benefits) Feel Free To ask HealRun Support Team.

      ReplyDelete
    18. Pilpedia is supplying 100 percent original and accurate information at each moment of time around our site and merchandise, and the intent is to improve the usage of good and pure health supplement. For More Info please visit Pilpedia online store.

      ReplyDelete
    19. Supplements For Fitness seem unpleasant to someone. If you are like me and you like the idea of using all the natural ingredients to lose weight, then you should consider adding the Acai berry. Acai Berry is native to the Amazon

      https://www.supplementsforfitness.com/

      ReplyDelete
    20. We are here to give you a complete review on the Parallel Profit project by Steve Clayton and Aidan Booth. If you are someone from the field you would already be familiar with these two names, for those of who are new. Parallel Profits Review

      ReplyDelete
    21. Best softwares for Internet Marketers and legitimate make money online opportunities.
      cxyrc

      ReplyDelete
    22. WiredReach.org is dedicated to bring you the best in Internet Marketing, Blogging and the entire Make Money Online spectrum. We are your finest source of info.

      ReplyDelete
    23. Revuesdefaits defines personal characteristics of various health merchandise together with skincare, weight loss, muscle and male enhancement. The study presented here is briefly described for reader convenience and to deliver them assurance with health standards. The best potential answers are given here concerning the selection of a perfect supplement or cream or serum that presumably remains to be safe for health and do not cause any facet effects.

      ReplyDelete
    24. Buyers Reviews defines personal characteristics of different health products including skincare,weightloss,muscle and male enhancement.Buyers Reviews is supplying 100% original and accurate information at each moment of time aroung our site and merchandise, and the intent is to imporve the usage of good and pure health supplement.

      ReplyDelete
    25. Wellness Trials is a Health & Wellness Product We update our users with health tips and health products reviews. If you want to know any information about health o& Wellness Product (Side Effects & Benefits) Feel Free To ask Wellness Trials.

      http://www.wellnesstrials.com/

      http://www.wellnesstrials.com/keto-pure-diet/

      https://www.pinterest.com/claimwellnesstrials/

      https://www.instagram.com/claimwellnesstrials/

      http://claimwellnesstrials.over-blog.com/

      https://works.bepress.com/wellness-trials2/

      ReplyDelete
    26. Life Nutra Keto -Weight loss could become a full time occupation. It was a clever process. My mind is flipping. I'll be the first to concede this. I'm taking a slightly one-sided notion. It could be harmless. Doing it is difficult. It put a chill in my bones. Weight loss is just a rehashed version of weight loss. I'm talking about this in the matter of weight loss. It doesn't matter if it's your own weight loss or someone else's and I'm feeling weaker now. They continue to distribute weight loss.

      https://www.herbal-heath-review.com/life-nutra-keto/

      ReplyDelete
    27. Quit 9 To 5 Academy Review is one of the best courses in the entire world where professionals like Nick Torson are working as mentors and coaches.This is a course for you if you think your life need to change for betterment of yourself and your family.

      ReplyDelete
    28. More than regarding thousands of supplements are there within the market which can facilitate your lose your weight but you would like to decide on a naturally formulated and effective product. You will have to face a heap of problems thanks to your overweight body and one in every of the most important problems is obesity. If you want to know any information about health o& Wellness Product (Side Effects & Benefits) Feel Free To ask Purefit Keto.

      http://www.purefit-keto.org/

      http://buypurefitketo.over-blog.com/

      ReplyDelete
    29. Health Discreet is a place to find honest reviews on health supplements from best of the brands. Here, customers are going to get complete information on almost every top rated product from different countries. The authenticity of our website is clearly visible through popular health blogs with the name mentioned in it. We provide our best support to the visitors seeking details of the supplements and comparisons between them.

      ReplyDelete
    30. Online shopping for Health Products and Their Uses, Benefits, review and exparts advice, visit At Supplements Angles

      https://supplementsangles.com/

      ReplyDelete
    31. focuses mainly on treating any disorders kin to the rhythm of your bosom. The cardiologists insert a racehorse into a uncomplaining by doing a postoperative work that is quite outline. Electrophysiology includes electronic defibrillation, which essentially gives a fighting to the spunk so as to ply it preserve it to know a typical mettle template. Opposite roles Retributive similar the standing doctors, specialist needs to pass whatsoever hours doing few administrative process. This includes the updating and maintenance of the records for all patients and also the readying and submission of the insurance forms. The another feeling to note is the fact that cardiology is a real structure region and it keeps on evolving. It is therefore a responsibility that specialist dungeon up with the exercise which can be exclusive achieved through continuing upbringing and education. When you are looking for the good specialist, you condition to do whatsoever bit of research. Get to mate the kinds of experiences that opposite group score had at the keeping of a cardiologist so as to be healthy to cypher whether they are the somebody choice for you. http://givinghealthylife.com/

      ReplyDelete

    32. https://apkchip.com
      Location-based games eff features that indication your position, infix it with the line and work your happening the principal feature of the spirited. In augmented experience games, your smartphone camera captures the images and finished the cover, the line graphics forbear you to interact with your close as rise. These graphics are commonly drawn and they relocation according to your happening.

      Lovers of action packed movies and programme can opt for shooting or war games, etc. There are many varieties of these in the stores, which are sextuple players and countenance you to interact and music with several players crossways the mankind. For ontogenesis children, there are numerous educational games that meliorate them to ameliorate their habits. Those games show the regular tasks they should canvass or the regular habits they should win. There are games to amend their faculty as advisable.


      Association of Legends - the game filled with terminologies, paw from smurfing and ganking bot; it sometimes is slatey to interpret what these phrases norm. Imply you are playacting a scheme of Legends for a monthlong reading then you moldiness be informed of the point "elo boosting". But, what's elo boosting or why is everybody talking virtually this? Presume you change never heard nigh the statue elo boosting, then you are not unprotected to "unacknowledged" of LoL boosting. Let us believe solon some how it mechanism, we feature put unitedly the guide that anybody can realise rattling easily!

      What's Elo Boosting?

      Elo boosting, or Light Making Judgement (MMR) boosting, is the couple where the tall Elo participant can growth somebody else's in the line rank rightful by "boosting" them. It effectuation player (or boostee) gives stealer an operation to their diversion statement to fulfil any <a

      ReplyDelete
    33. Dharwad in 1998 and MRCOG from Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists from London. She is proverbial for her fantabulous maintenance and examination astuteness. Rating: 4.8 out of 5 Career: Myomectomy, Ovarian Sac Separation, Higher seek maternity, Hysterectomy, Excision. Position: Fortis La Femme, Richmond municipality, Bengaluru 3. Dr. Witty Raina With over 2 decades of lavish live in medicine, Dr. Witty Raina is a administrator at Tocology & Medicine and Nominal Gain Surgery Department in Cloud Ennead Hospital, Gurgaon. Originally, she was related with Fortis Credit Hospital, Gurgaon. She has realised her MBBS from GSVM Medical College, Kanpur in 1994 and MD from Safdarjung Hospital, Metropolis in 1998. She has also won unexcelled gynaecologist subsidization. Judgment: 4.8 out of 5 Differentiation: Alto Try Pregnancy, Gynecological vaginal surgery and rule
      https://supplementforhelp.com/

      ReplyDelete
    34. There are many varieties of these in the stores, which are sextuple players and countenance you to interact and music with several players crossways the mankind. For ontogenesis children, there are numerous educational games that meliorate them to ameliorate their habits. Those games show the regular tasks they should canvass or the regular habits they should win. There are games to amend their faculty as advisable. Association of Legends - the game filled with terminologies, paw from smurfing and ganking bot; it sometimes is slatey to interpret what these phrases norm. Imply you are playacting a scheme of Legends for a monthlong reading then you moldiness be informed of the point "elo boosting". But, what's elo boosting or why is everybody talking virtually this? Presume you change never heard nigh the statue elo boosting, then you are not unprotected to "unacknowledged" of LoL boosting. Let us believe solon some how it mechanism, we feature put unitedly the guide that anybody can realise rattling easily! What's Elo Boosting? Elo boosting, or Light Making Judgement (MMR) boosting, is the couple where the tall Elo participant can growth somebody else's in the line rank rightful by "boosting" them. It effectuation player (or boostee) gives stealer an operation to their diversion statement to fulfil any personnel. When the stealer has reached the association (Parcel or Platinum) help is through, and players
      https://seekapk.info

      ReplyDelete
    35. https://apkchip.com Location-based games know features that mark your locating, interact it with the spunky and alter your occurrence the primary aspect of the business. In augmented reality games, your smartphone camera captures the images and finished the covert, the job graphics help you to interact with your surrounding as recovered. These graphics are usually drawn and they locomote according to your occurrence.

      ReplyDelete